Introduction

Progress in protection against RSV in adults and children

Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are the leading cause of death in children under five years of age outside the neonatal period. Viruses are the commonest (80%) cause of LRTI, with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) the most common cause overall (31.1%). Importantly, only a small percentage of LRTI are caused by pathogens that are currently covered by licensed vaccinations (HiB, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and influenza A + B), highlighting that further investment into the development of vaccines targeting prevalent organisms for LRTI is needed to reduce global mortality rates.

A review of current antibiotic resistance in the community in South Africa and how it impacts on outpatient management of common community-acquired infections

Most infections originating in the community are not caused by bacteria, but rather viruses and parasites, not benefiting from antibiotic treatment. Similarly, bacterial causes of diarrhoeal diseases are self-limiting in most cases. The majority of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria are associated with hospital origin, and difficult to treat, which is one of the greatest threats. At the same time, there is a need for development of policies to completely reconsider the fundamental antimicrobial resistance narrative based on the "One Health" approach, understanding the animal and environmental dissemination of resistant organisms and genes, and their impacts on biodiversity and human health.

How to diagnose acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and antimicrobial stewardship

The publication of the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2020, (EPOS 2020), in February 2020 has in its entirety given a very balanced opinion on this topic. It comprehensively covers the topics in a complete, up to date and well explained manner, entirely suitable for the purposes of this paper. It references expert opinion in a single document. This supplement has been used exclusively in this paper.

Accreditation

Health Professions Council of South Africa

MDB015/1140/08/2023

2 Clinical

Certification

Attempts allowed: 2

70% pass rate





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Infectious Diseases Updates - Vol 12 no 4 - 2023